Ancient Rome

As the legend goes, Romulus and Remus, Roman twins, were separated by their mother and left by the Tiber River to starve. However, the mother wolf found them and looked after them. Years later, the boys were instructed by Mars, the Roman god of war, to build a city where they were found. They built the city but declared war on each other. Romulus won and so the city became known as Rome.

Life in ancient Rome is said to have begun in the 8th or 9th century BC. It happened when the northern warriors moved to the Italian peninsula and rehabilitated around the Tiber River. For centuries, Rome was considered the most significant city in the ever-expanding Roman Empire. Rome was the capital and held all positions of power.

In historical times, Rome was ruled by kings. These kings had a reputation for being extremely cruel. As a result, the last king Tarkin the Proud was overthrown and Rome acquired the status of a republic for the next four centuries. Rome was then ruled by the Senate. The Romans elect senators who carry out administrative tasks. A distinctive feature of the Roman Empire was that only Roman citizens were allowed to vote during elections. However, women, poor people and slaves were not considered citizens.

Rome also went through a phase in which it was ruled by military generals. But because these generals were many, decision-making became a problem. The Romans needed an emperor to centralize power. This came in the form of Augustus Caesar, who came to power in 27 BC.

When Christianity gained popularity, Rome became an important seat of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope's home. With the advent of the Middle Ages, humanity saw the decline of the Roman Empire. Despite the declining empire, the city revived its glory as the political capital of Europe for several hundred years until the Renaissance. Even today, Rome remains powerful and seen as the capital of Italy with its beautiful architecture and culture.